I can’t sleep… …so I penned a love letter to Dario Argento’s Sleepless

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Appreciation of a film is very subjective, not just to personal resonance, the period of our lives in which we watch it and taste but also the wider context in terms of genre and technical competence. All or some of these elements may combine leaving us with both our personal impression and the wider accepted view. However it may also mean that we love films that perhaps we shouldn’t and dismiss films that maybe require reappraisal. 

In regards to the giallo genre one such film that I believe falls into the latter for many is SLEEPLESS aka Non Ho Sonno by Dario Argento.

No introduction is needed for this director or the impact that he has had not just on Italian horror but the wider genre overall and frequently when his name is mentioned amongst fans be it at a festival, in the pub or on a cult internet forum, the debate of what constitutes his last great film is raised.

For some it is TENEBRAE, for others it ended with OPERA although I have also seen cases made for THE STENDHAL SYNDROME and even DRACULA 3D….ok maybe that last one was a joke, in more ways that one. But for me it is unequivocally SLEEPLESS.

In fact I propose that SLEEPLESS is not only his best work in the last three decades but also represents the very best of all post-nineties gialli. Not because it is a Dario Argento film but because it is one of the very few that actually adheres to the tropes of the genre, incorporating them into a working narrative whilst simultaneously managing to engage with the audience.

Now let’s be clear I am not against innovation or adaption of the genre rules, the giallo genre throughout its history is rife with appropriation and adaption having gone through several cycles, adapting itself to the requirements and preferences of audiences at any given time from Hitchcockian and Agatha Christie murder mysteries, to the psychological or the psycho-sexual and then the straight-out erotic by way of the occult and supernatural, although not necessarily all in that order.

So films such as SYMPHONY IN BLOOD RED from Luigi Pastore, FRANCESCA from Luciano Onetti not to mention AMER from Helene Cattet and Bruno Forzani and THE TRANSPARENT WOMAN from Domiziano Cristopharo all have their merits but it is the likes of  ALMOST BLUE from Alex Infrascelli and EYES OF CRYSTAL from Eros Puglielli that sit alongside SLEEPLESS in that they are the most true to the genre, although a special mention has to go to Sergio Martino for the disappointing TV movie MOZART IS A MURDERER (1999) that also attempted to fit into the more traditional genre style.

However while ALMOST BLUE and EYES OF CRYSTAL provide a decent watch, they both fall by the wayside when talking about actual giallo, as we would understand it as opposed to the wider Italian interpretation of the genre – with one element of where we differ in terms of the mystery genre being the deployment of a professional detective.

Additionally, ALMOST BLUE  and EYES OF CRYSTAL are both based on novels, therefore they are constrained further due to having to remain true, to an extent, to the source material. While SLEEPLESS, although co-written by a novelist (Carlo Lucarelli) was free to be written purely for the screen – and as a result is better able to visually mimic the giallo film formula, with mimic being a key term.

It is at this point that I may lose the support of some of you, have I made a contentious claim here? Going back to my opening thought, it is clear that how we interpret the genre and how we define also shapes our arguments and our preferences.

For me, a black gloved killer, POV shots and plot absurdity, to some level at least, reign supreme as a staple of the genre. That is why I feel assured and certain in my argument that SLEEPLESS is not only the last quality film made by Dario Argento but also the best giallo of the last three decades.

But why do I rate this film so much and why should you check it out or give it another go?

Coming three years after the misguided attempt that was THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA (1998), fan expectation was low and with good reason as Dario Argento had spent years proclaiming that he did not want to finish his ‘Three Mothers’ trilogy – he would – or make another DEPP RED just because of fan pressure and that he would rather indulge in his own creative interests. 

However for one reason or another he returned to the genre he made his own and whether he committed fully to the project or not, the brief footage in ‘The Making of Sleepless’ extra from Arrow Video’s UK DVD release certainly makes it seem like he had a change of heart, the end result is an energetic and authentic giallo that throws as much on the screen as it can.

Opening immediately with an upbeat killer theme tune, courtesy of Goblin in their first collaboration with the director since PHENOMENA, we witness retrospectively a scene set in Torino at some point during March, 1983 where a young boy named Giacomo is being consoled by Police Inspector Moretti after the brutal killing of his mother.

Jumping to modern day Turin, a prostitute is having trouble with her client but after the offer of additional payment she suddenly becomes a little more amenable to whatever perverse demands were put to her. Once her sadomasochistic customer falls asleep our luckless prostitute attempts to leave only to overhear sleep-talking about killing lots of people. Panicking she rushes to leave, knocking into a small cabinet and sending its contents along with that of her bag flying everywhere. Now a mixture of files, press cuttings and make up not to mention a kill kit lay strewn across the floor and in her rush to leave she hastily grabs her items and leaves. Taking with her a key piece of evidence and starting an exhilarating and brutal chase sequence complete with ramped-up tension, POV shots and of course excessive violence and blood.

A blistering twenty minutes opens this film and putting any implausibility aside, admittedly you might have to, it is highly satisfying to finally get a film that plays out like the genre of old.

Sleepless by Dario Argento

As the film progresses events lead a couple of investigating officers back to what was known as the ‘Dwarf killer’, a case that was investigated and solved by our old friend Moretti back in the early eighties. 

Now that this old case is awoken so is the murderer’s intent, with the ferocity and frequency that a slasher film would be proud of. Off-camera it is at the point of the films third murder that something rather strange for a Dario Argento film occurs – the gloved hands of the killer are not those of the iconic director but rather another crew member. The reason for this was simple, as stated to Almar Haflidason in an interview with the BBC, it was simply because the “gloves were too big” for his hands. With something as mundane as this a Dario Argento directorial tradition was broken.

The opening act of the film coming to a close we see a now grown-up Giacomo thrown back into the mix, along with a brutal alternative flashback of the films opening scene, completing our back-story while driving the narrative forwards as an entertaining modern amateur investigation links the past and the present almost like a play off Dario Argento’s greatest hits including a killer dwarf (a la Deep Red), fiction influencing reality (a la Tenebrae) and much more across displaying wider genre influence and history.

Constantly straddling the line between parody and authenticity SLEEPLESS takes an almost frantic, kitchen sink approach but the tight pacing, intriguing mystery and clever, if sometimes convenient, plot devices keep it ticking over as the writers leave a trail of breadcrumbs for the investigating characters (and viewers) to follow with twists, turns and red herrings at each and every step of the way and as we slowly understand more we find ourselves engrossed in this violent mystery.

In regards to the success of the scripting we must be careful giving Dario Argento all of the credit or perhaps even the lions share as alongside him was semi-frequent collaborator Franco Ferrini (EYES OF CRYSTAL; PHENOMENA; OPERA; THE CARD PLAYER) and, I would propose more importantly, crime television celebrity and author Carlo Lucarelli (writer of the novel Almost Blue) who is also credited with contributing to the story. Although his exact involvement is unconfirmed the fact remains that SLEEPLESS is above and beyond the films of Dario Argento and Franco Ferrini both immediately before and everything after , so the only difference in this respect being Carlo Lucarelli.  

But whatever the reason and all speculation aside every aspect of SLEEPLESS works, from the pacing and (preposterous) story to the Goblin score all the way to the excellent special effects which beautifully highlight the art of violence that Dario Argento is best known for. 

Sergio Stivaletti (DEMONS; OPERA; DELLAMORTE DELLAMORE) has to receive the credit here as he does exceptionally well on a limited budget, never hiding the gore as he displays these not only extremely bloody but also inventive pieces of work as fingers are chopped, teeth smashed and heads exploded.

Although we must accept that this is still a modern day Dario Argento movie and for all the positives there are still a few areas in which the director misses the mark for one reason or another. One such example is the cinematography which is functional at best and admittedly lacking that extra bit of flair that was prevalent in his seventies output but perhaps more seriously there is a moment which cannot be simply chalked down to cultural or historical attitudes as one might do with some of the characters or scenes from his early to mid seventies output.

This is the insensitive choice of comical, almost circus-like music for the scene in which the police round up the city’s dwarves. This particular scene comes across as ill-judged at best. Meanwhile others may criticise the films over-the-top adoption of the genres tropes which at times leave the film open to being a pastiche of Dario Argento’s work rather than actually being from the director himself. Conversely this might also be to the films benefits in regards to the entertainment stakes.

Ultimately I can admit that SLEEPLESS is riddled with plot holes and conveniences, it panders to the needs of the giallo fan and can be seen as a souped-up TV movie, but what separates it from being another MOZART IS A MURDERER are these very same points.

The film counters any story issues with strong pacing…and violence, so sure it does pander to the needs of the giallo fan but is that such a bad thing when it is being delivered by someone with the credibility and validity of Dario Argento? 

Meanwhile the casting and performance of Max Von Sydow (THE SEVENTH SEAL; THE EXORCIST) lends the film a certain level of gravitas unreachable by many other films produced around the same time or the straight to TV produced gialli. Not to mention strong turns by Gabriele Lavia (DEEP RED) and Rossella Falk (BLACK BELLY OF THE TARANTULA; SEVEN BLOOD-STAINED ORCHIDS) giving the film yet another link to the past.

The giallo genre’s decline is well document and the new breed producing this cinematic art form have moved on, evolved if you will, that much is clear but every now and then is it so bad to want something modern that does more than just pay a slight visual or audio homage to the past? 

I say no and for those very moments SLEEPLESS is there. So if you are yet to see it or if you have only seen it the once I recommend you give it another go.


Articles and Interviews, blog

Today (Monday 4 June 2018) Amazon Studios released the first teaser trailer for Luca Guadagnino’s upcoming remake of SUSPIRIA. 

The 1977 original by Dario Argento, one of the masters of Italian horror, was a supernatural and vivid masterpiece as vibrant in colour as it was dark in soul and so it was understandable upon the announcement of a remake that many fans were anxious at best and angry at worst.

Even myself felt some trepidation, after all there was no need for a remake as the original despite its age holds up to this day and is still widely available. My initial concerns remained in place upon the unveiling of the first poster.

This poster was more than just a teaser or an announcement, it was a an opportunity for the producers (marketing team, creative team and everyone involved) to adjust how potential viewers would see the film, it would give an opportunity for the 2018 version of SUSPIRIA to position itself for all audiences, regardless of whether they were familiar with Dario Argento version or not.

So it was a great disappointment when the poster was unveiled as when viewed without much context and on its own the font style and production technique were so mis-aligned with the tone of the film it was hard to understand the ideas or objective behind it.

A stone like background with a messy-yet-computerised, I would even go as far as to say artificial and contrived, painted “S” would certainly be understandable to the initiated but certainly would not appease or excite. While those new prospective fans, unaware of the film, would surely be left uninformed by this poster without any article to support it and no doubt would surely be wondering what kind of film it is. Hardly conducive to sticking in their memory. 

Here in lies the dangers with modern day drip feeding of content, there may or may not be any context to support or help form an opinion. For many, myself included this washed out background and artificial foreground red was bland, the font type of the S looked bloated and there was little to latch on it.

Ultimately it was a design that would not change anyones mind, those who wanted to bad mouth the film would use this to do so and those wanted to keep an open mind would still keep that niggling worry in the back of their head. 

But we all would talk about it, increase its reach and perhaps that is all that matters.

So with the teaser video, the next piece of teaser marketing being fed to us masses I was delighted to see and understand the complete use of the logo (for lack of a better term), to see and understand a bit more about the tone of the film and most of all start to feel the atmosphere of the film.

A much darker colour scheme permeates throughout this trailer (as opposed to those popping primary colours previously) but the sense of unease remains as the footage comes across as both frantic, claustrophobic and sinister all at the same time and I for one am now very excited to see this film.

There is always a danger in analysing a trailer too much but here the footage chosen works hinting at a wider, sinister and cruel mystery that would be apparent to anyone regardless of their familiarity with the source material.

After speaking with the highly informative Bob Freudstein (of the amazing House of Freudstein blog and more) he recognised the Red Army Fraction logo in the diary adding another potential line of inquiry, red herring or perhaps even inconsequential cultural/period reference piece. Very intriguing.

I am delighted to see that those creatively behind the film have had the bravery to go their own way and put their own stamp on things rather that simply regurgitate or appease. No matter what happens this will be Luca Guadagnino’s SUSPIRIA and based on this trailer the November release date cannot come soon enough. 

What are your thoughts on the trailer and the remake? Let me know over on Twitter.

Dario, Fiat and advertising

Articles and Interviews

Seventeen years after changing the game with the seminal THE BIRD WITH THE CRYSTAL PLUMAGE (1970) and a decade after the supernatural mystery thriller SUSPIRIA (1977) came this, arguably Dario Argento’s most leftfield output.

By this point in his career Dario Argento had already become an international name, synonymous for violent murder mysteries but in 1987 the writing was on the wall for not only Italian horror but also the country’s cinematic output in general. Taking his cue from the equally revered directors Federico Fellini and Sergio Leone, Dario Argento would follow in their footsteps and enter the world of television advertising thanks to an invitation from one of the most Italian of automobile institutions – Fiat.

The 30-second advert for the Fiat Croma was a concept designed by Alessandro Petrini and Mario Marchello for the New York based advertising agency Benton & Bowles (DMB&M). A company which back in 1976 had employed the shock-jock Howard Stern as an assistant media planner.

Shot over ten days in Alice Springs, Australia this location allowed for every car advertisers dream; miles and miles of asphalt set against a picturesque exotic location. In this case a large desert. Here, there is nothing around to distract. Only you, your car and the road.

A Fiat hurtles down a dark, lonely road to an ominous sound. The name Dario Argento appears on the bottom of the screen as the camera focuses in on the name of the car. The boot opens allowing the camera to glide through the car from back to front, a movement reminiscent of his flowing dolly shots from movies such as SUSPIRIA. Suddenly the darkness gives way to a pulsating 80s rock tune, sun and imposing landscape. We are free.

In less than forty seconds we have seen both the interior and exterior details but perhaps more importantly we have witnessed the sense of aspiration and freedom that this car affords us – these are vital components when selling a high (emotional and financial) investment item.

Going through the first three stages of the AIDA model, FIAT have shook their small, cute Italian image (at least that is how we see the majority of their primarily city cars – the spider being a clear exception) and display the Croma with some adventurous, exciting edge.

At the end a voice, from what I have read that of Dario Argento himself proclaims in Italian ‘When you drive it, it is more beautiful’ further reinforcing the aspirational approach that is so vital to gaining buy-in and building desire.

Somehow the advert manages to channel and harness the visual and stylistic approach of Dario Argento with the practical framework required to market a product. Not many film directors can manage that without compromise. The only thing missing is a black leather glove driving the car. Perhaps the use of the director should not be much of a shock however as two years before the company used an alien theme, and while not as kinetic as the advert put together by Dario Argento it still displayed a bit of style and genre sensibility. Perhaps, just perhaps this was the market for the vehicle.

According to art director Alessandro Petrini in an interview that was later replicated on the Autopareri forum, many of the shots were demanding and required careful modifications to the vehicles used while he had also wanted to capture one of the icons of the outback – a kangaroo. Unfortunately these creatures proved a little too elusive and a substitute grasshopper was used instead serving the purpose of breaking up the sequences.

This advert represents a strange shift of pace for Dario Argento. Had it been in his later years when his output began to objectively decline then sure you might see it as a cash-grab, but this was during a period where his work involved OPERA and participating with DEMONS 2.

Whatever the reason, of course we can’t forget that FIAT are based in Dario Argento’s adopted city of Turin and this advert provides us with a little glimmer of an alternative career for the man and a rare oddity in his canon of work. Although as you will see perhaps not that much of an anomaly.

Now…which way to my nearest Fiat dealer.

After all of that though, his advertisement for the sugar company Eridania is perhaps even more baffling as. The advert juxtaposes the media perception (dark and scary; a master of horror) with that of a more personal, warm hearted nature and as a result highlights a great sense of humour as he blubs at a film while eating popcorn and passes out at the sight of blood. A terrific piece of endorsement and humour which is has been a staple of many a good advert with a celebrity playing against type.

Many years ago I wrote my postgraduate dissertation on the constructs and dimensions of endorsement advertising models and wow…had I seen this then I would have had a field day. Dario my good man – you never cease to amaze me.

If for whatever reason you need a hard copy of the Fiat advert or want to discover other directors delving into the murky world of TV commercials hunt down the documentary THE KING OF ADS from 1991.